Determining classification of breast cancer subtypes is important to oncologists and their patients because it helps them formulate an individualized treatment approach that will provide the highest efficacy, lowest toxicity and best chance for a good outcome.
In March 2012, four major organizations - preventative, professional and governmental - jointly issued new guidelines for cervical cancer screening. Major changes are listed in this article.
Early detection of serous ovarian cancer would save the lives of many women, but there is no reliable screening test that has the sensitivity or the specificity to be useful in clinical practice.
Until recently, a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was often accompanied with a poor prognosis for treatment.
Cystic thyroid nodules (CTN) are very common and are frequently aspirated for cytology examination. In what follows, I attempt to summarize notes, key points, and my experience with cystic lesions.
There is often confusion (and even controversy) among healthcare providers regarding the proper evaluation and management of ASC, especially ASC-H.
Although culture was long considered the gold standard, the PAS stain has been shown to be a sensitive method for the diagnosis of onychomycosis.
Since 1989, there have been several significant developments in the field of cytology that have rendered the category of reactive changes to clinical obsolescence. This article explains why in a laboratory, reactive changes in a Pap are identified, confirmed to be nonneoplastic, then reported as a ‘Negative’ finding, with clear distinction of the finding from ASCUS or LSIL, without the use of HPV tests.
The combined use of E-cadherin and p120ctn immunostaining on a single slide is very helpful in subclassifying certain breast carcinomas.
Cell block preparation is useful for the detection and diagnosis of many other lesions, so why not use it as a complement to the Pap test, especially for diagnostically difficult cases?